Milling ebook (pdf)



Included with this ebook is a trading account.

(An excel file containing a template of projected profit loss and cash flow statements.)

Table of contents

  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: What is commercial small to medium-scale milling?
  • Chapter 2: Grading of grain
  • Chapter 3: Economic considerations of milling
    • Costing the raw material and procurement thereof
    • Fixed vs variable operational costs
    • The product mix and its optimization
    • Capital budgets
    • Location of the plant
    • Building requirements
    • Personnel
    • Maintenance
    • Stock control, gross profit calculation and determining yield
    • The milling triangle
  • Chapter 4: Storage requirements and solutions for grain handling
  • Chapter 5: The economics of milling: Understanding milling from the perspective of an accountant
  • Chapter 6: Milling for human consumption: an answer to a need and answering changed needs
  • Chapter 7: Maize milling fundamentals
  • The maize kernel and its components
    • Wet milling
    • Dry milling
    • Selection of an appropriate mill
  • Chapter 8: Small and medium-scale milling and the options
    • Technical description of various mills
  • Chapter 9: Wheat milling
  • Chapter 10: Milling of other commercial grains
    • Sorghum and millet
    • Cassava
    • Teff
    • Rye, oats and barley
    • Rice: the really big grain after maize
  • Chapter 11: What do I get for my buck? Cost of various mills and a financing “template”
  • Chapter 12: Conclusion


This book was written with the potential entrepreneur, as well as the novice miller in mind, and is not focused necessarily on the trained and experienced miller and the existing successful entrepreneur/miller, while it is trusted that such persons may also find this of interest and assistance.


For more than two decades, the writer has operated several smaller mills for maize and wheat, and has been involved in the design  and supply of milling equipment especially to African countries and customers. As an economist by training, the commercial interest has always been paramount in viewing milling, perhaps differentiating this outlook from the more technical views normally encountered.


While there is no shortage of small mills in Africa, there are many different routes to get to qualities that are acceptable and preferred by various communities, as well as quality requirements for snack foods extrusion and beer making that are simply not just a result of making a “dirty-white powder”.



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